ItemNewly Qualified Irish Primary School Teachers’ Experiences and Understandings of Reinforcement and Punishment(Dublin Business School, 2022-05-12) Horan, Edel; Hyland, JohnThe Irish education system has had many considerable changes within the past two decades. Initial teacher education has considerably lengthened in duration. Behaviour management models utilised within the education system have also shifted, from punitive towards reinforcement-based procedures. There has been a significant amount of research regarding the preparation provided by ‘Initial Teacher Education’ (ITE) programmes in the Irish context. Much of this research highlighted findings regarding how underprepared teachers are in the area of behaviour management. Interestingly, however, there has been little research on preparedness since the ITE programmes have recently lengthened in duration. Therefore, this qualitative research aimed to answer the question: What are the experiences and understandings of Irish newly qualified primary school teachers (NQTs) in the area of punishment and reinforcement within the context of behaviour management? Four semi-structured interviews with newly qualified teachers were conducted. Thematic analysis of transcripts indicated four key themes: ‘Learning of behaviour management’, ‘Reinforcement’, ‘Punishment’, and ‘Establishment of behaviour management’. The findings indicate, though provided with various learning opportunities, newly qualified teachers lack in their understanding of the terms reinforcement and punishment, despite clear uses of both in the classrooms. The NQTs had a clearer concept of the term reinforcement, in comparative to that of punishment. Although participants were largely unaware of the definition of punishment, and often evidently disapproving of its use, there were clear uses of punishment procedures by NQTs in the findings of this study. This study indicated the need to scrutinise education in the area of behaviour management at both initial teacher education and newly qualified teacher levels. Further studies investigating the impact of varying methods of preparation for effective behaviour management may be beneficial. Further exploration of the causal links between NQT self-efficacy and the selection of reinforcement or punishment is also recommended. ItemCan classroom conversations contribute to the curriculum? Children's perception of the Aistear Framework.(St Nicholas Montessori College Ireland, 2022-05-12) Kelly, Paula; O'Donnell, TashReferred to as “a missing link in assessment” (Banta and Kuh, 1998), collaboration between students and faculty has the potential to transform engagement, and reframe assessment. While we all recognise the need for assessment, students tend to be grade-focused (Wotjas, 1998), often paying little attention to written feedback (Ducan, 2007), thus missing an opportunity to transform future work. Clearly, there is a need for our thinking regarding assessment to continue to evolve, but is third level education leaving it too late? If Primary and Secondary institutes are handed a rigid curriculum (Woodrow, 2007), that comes with rigid assessment, ingrained in students long before their engagement with third level institutions. For this reason, the researchers turn their attention to the early education sector, and its Aistear Curriculum Framework (NCCA, 2009). This framework is adaptable and learning is student-led. It creates space for the child’s voice, facilitating innovative research and promoting participation (I’Ansos, 2013). Of course, for students of any age to shape their own learning and assessment, they must understand the curriculum, or rather, we must understand how they interpret the curriculum. For the purpose of this project, the researchers collaborated with children in early years education, attending an Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) state-funded class. Children aged between 3-6 years were invited to share their views on the Aistear curriculum, with willing participants taking part in a focus group discussion. They children were invited to describe how they “see” each theme of Aistear in their classroom, with each willing participant given an opportunity to express their views. The results were documented by the researchers and read back to the children, offering them an opportunity to change, or add to, their comments. Their feedback was then used to inform preparation of the environment and the planning of learning opportunities. ItemCreating composites as evidence based research into an approach to counselling therapy (the experience of the propeller model approach)(Irish College of Humanities and Applied Sciences, 2022-05-12) Stevenson, KevinAs a Post-Doctoral Fellow with Sofia University in Bulgaria, who is a practicing Counselling Therapist with the British Association of Counsellors and Psychotherapists in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, it has been a challenging and interesting experience introducing and utilizing one’s own therapeutic approach in my own practice. The Propeller Approach to psychotherapy and counselling is an approach that was developed from a Philosophy Doctoral dissertation which aims to be holistic, and can be considered an Existentialist, Gestalt or even Daseinanalytic approach that essentially aims to increase a client’s awareness of themselves. In order to provide an evidence-based backing for the Propeller Approach and understand the experience that clients have had with the approach a qualitative approach to research was implemented in order to receive feedback from five participants through semi-structured interviews after having received ethical approval from the Irish College of Humanities and Applied Science which is the college of which I am Sessional Lecturer. After receiving the data from the participants, the data was transcribed in order to apply thematic analysis to the data. In order to maintain anonymity but also to present the information in a creative and interesting manner, a composite of the data was created in order to fictionalize the data and increase the flow of the presentation of the information received. The use of thematic analysis also led to thematic mapping in order to code and identify the themes derived from the data which the composite contributed to. The project shows not only the potential of a new therapeutic approach to counselling therapy with the Propeller Model, but how to render it as an evidence-based effective approach through applied research methods whilst demonstrating the value that composites can have within thematic analysis. ItemSexual minority discrimination today: Implications for relationship satisfaction, passionate love and communication apprehension(Dublin Business School, 2022-05-12) Hyland, PaulineHomosexuality was classified as a mental illness by the American Psychiatric Association until 1973. In Ireland, Homosexuality was illegal until 1998; it was then decriminalised under the Employment Equality Act and the Equality Status Act (2002). In May 2015, progress was made; the Marriage Equality Referendum was passed in Ireland which legalised marriage for two same-sex partners (Tobin, 2016). Despite legal progress, social equality has not emerged. A recurrent argument for the LGBT movement was that homosexuality was not a choice but was biological in nature (Coyle & Kitzinger, 2002). Despite evidence that sexual orientation does not affect parenting skills; same-sex parents experience discrimination which causes negative mental health implications (Coyle & Kitzinger, 2002). The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of relationships between opposite sex couples and same-sex couples, post marriage referendum in Ireland, across the variables of relationship satisfaction, communication, and passionate love. A second aim was to determine if sexual minorities do experience greater discrimination, and how it effects relationship quality. Using a mixed methods approach with a correlational and cross-sectional design, this study examined couple satisfaction, passionate love, communication, and discrimination among 187 18–65-year-old participants who were all in a relationship (107 heterosexuals, 40 lesbians, 21 gay men, 18 bisexuals). Results showed that sexual minorities experience significantly higher levels of discrimination than heterosexual couples. Passionate Love and Communication were shown to predict relationship satisfaction. Statistical analysis reported no significant difference in relationship satisfaction based on sexual orientation. Qualitative questions were able to provide more detailed data on discrimination. ItemDevelopment of an evidence response to COVID-19(Health Service Executive, 2022-05-13) Hegarty, RonanAt the onset of the COVID pandemic, HSE frontline staff faced the immediate challenge of managing cases of COVID-19 across healthcare settings, with little in the way of best practice guidance. Frontline staff required access to summaries of the latest guidance to support them in their clinical practice. HSE National Health Library & Knowledge (now renamed HSE Health Library Ireland) was asked to provide literature searches and evidence summaries on questions in relation to COVID-19 from frontline health workers, health managers and National Clinical Programmes. A national virtual team of HSE librarians including some other volunteer librarians was quickly established. This Evidence Team developed a standardised search protocol which established a specific set of sources to search. An Evidence Summary template was also developed in which the evidence found during the literature search could be completed by librarians and disseminated. Each question received was validated to see if there was existing guidance available; where a summary was appropriate, a systematic literature search was carried out and the best available evidence compiled into a concise 1 or 2 page summary of evidence. Evidence summaries were completed by pairs of librarians and were then sent to the healthcare worker that had requested the review. Before being sent for publication, the reviews were subject to a double editorial. The completed summaries were made freely available in 3 separate locations online. Initially, the service was used mainly by individual health professionals as well as the National Clinical Programmes. In 2021, the service was increasingly availed of by the National Immunisation Advisory Committee. Going forward, while still being available to provide evidence summaries on COVID-19, the Evidence Team offers a comprehensive search and summary service to all HSE staff on any healthcare topic. We are also collaborating with the Health Information Quality Authority.