ItemAn exploration into the nuances of conducting psychotherapy using video conferencing technology(Dublin Business School, 2020) Keeney, Roxane; Donohue, GráinnePsychotherapy conducted online using video conferencing software is becoming an increasingly popular option for both clients and psychotherapists. The Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) has forced the profession at large to become acquainted with this mode of practice overnight, as seeing clients face to face has not been permitted during a countrywide lockdown, from March to June 2020. However, specific training for working online with video is not currently being covered by the majority of psychotherapy training courses in Ireland. The core aim of this research is to address specific nuances of working in this way from experienced practitioners that could have a potential impact on the therapeutic encounter and its’ processes. This qualitative research paper aims to identify these nuances and explore their implications for video psychotherapy practice. It attempts to serve as a guide and support to practitioners who decide to, or indeed have to, conduct their sessions over video. Six psychotherapists who have experience of conducting their practice both with face to face sessions, and over video, have been interviewed for the purpose of the research. Thematic analysis has been used to identify patterns and meanings within the data set. Subsequently, three key themes have been highlighted relating to this topic; (i) The challenges of introducing video technology into the psychotherapeutic space, (ii) Managing the nuances of the cocreated space over video, (iii) The requirement for psychotherapeutic modifications and flexibility. This research suggests that there are challenges that are unique to this way of working, yet also that there are instances where this way of working is proving to be successful, if the therapist is able to adequately modify their therapeutic techniques to its unique set of demands. ItemWhere do we stand with OCD: Psychotherapists recognition of, and treatment recommendations for, individuals presenting with taboo intrusive thoughts(Dublin Business School, 2020) Canavan, Réamonn; O’Donnell, Siobain; Donohue, GráinneObsessive compulsive disorder is a prevalent mental health problem and is characterised by high levels of morbidity. It can present in a variety of ways and research suggests that taboo intrusive thoughts are less likely to be recognised as OCD in comparison to more recognisable forms. Most individuals with OCD do not receive adequate therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to examine psychotherapists appraisals of clients presenting with specific OCD symptoms. This study was a cross sectional vignette-based survey of 514 accredited psychotherapists in Ireland. Each participant was randomly assigned to a vignette describing a client with different OCD subtypes – paedophilia, aggressive, religious, homosexuality, contamination and symmetry intrusive thoughts. Participants were asked for their interpretations of the presenting symptoms, their treatment recommendations and to rate their confidence in their responses. Perceived dangerousness and willingness to work with the client were also investigated. This study was a cross sectional vignette-based survey of 514 accredited psychotherapists in Ireland. Each participant was randomly assigned to a vignette describing a client with different OCD subtypes – paedophilia, aggressive, religious, homosexuality, contamination and symmetry intrusive thoughts. Participants were asked for their interpretations of the presenting symptoms, their treatment recommendations and to rate their confidence in their responses. Perceived dangerousness and willingness to work with the client were also investigated. Participants who were presented with the contamination and symmetry vignettes were significantly more likely to accurately identify OCD than those presented with the taboo intrusive thoughts vignettes. Participants also attributed greater levels of stigma to clients with taboo intrusive thoughts. Participants who correctly identified OCD were significantly more likely to recommend an evidence-based treatment. Confidence was a poor predictor of OCD identification and evidence-based treatment recommendations. The results suggest a lack of awareness of certain types of OCD presentation amongst psychotherapists in Ireland, and of beneficial therapeutic interventions for OCD. The implications of this, and possible applications of these results, are discussed in the dissertation. ItemThe gift of death: Congruence and finitude in Carl Rogers’s person-centred therapy(Dublin Business School, 2020) O’Loughlin, Darren; McCoy, StephenThis thesis will critically explore Carl Rogers’s understanding of human existence, self-formation and his notion of congruence. It will be argued that Rogers’s theory does not sufficiently acknowledge the relevance of finitude (or mortality) in meaningful human being, despite the theory identifying a knowing relationship to finitude (understood as the potential for one’s destruction) at the deepest level of the individual’s existence. The thesis aims to explore how this relationship to finitude plays out in the development of the self as understood by Rogers, as well as its relevance to Rogers’s concepts of congruence and incongruence. Rogers’s theory will also be brought into dialogue with some of the key teachings from the school of existentialism, particularly with regard to the role and importance of death in what it means to be human. In so doing, the thesis will investigate to what extent finitude, present but underdeveloped in Rogerian theory, can be enriched by the teachings of existentialism, while still remaining faithful to Rogers’s understanding of existence, the self and congruent being. Item‘Grist to the mill’ A quantitative exploration of Ireland-based psychotherapists’ attitudes towards internet use and the potential impact on the therapeutic relationship(Dublin Business School, 2020) Keogh, Daniel; Donohue, Gráinne; O’Keeffe, CathalThis research explored the attitudes of Ireland-based psychotherapists in relation to the therapeutic relationship and boundaries, their internet use, and discovery of personal information online by therapists and clients and the impact, if any, of this on the therapeutic relationship. A quantitative design was used encompassing an online survey and analysis was completed using SPSS. 879 responses were collected, all of whom are Ireland-based practicing psychotherapists in 2020. Findings indicate that the Ireland-based psychotherapists believe that boundaries are essential to the creation and maintenance of a strong therapeutic relationship which has the client feeling understood, seen and heard at its centre. The vast majority of participants believe that carefully managing the information about themselves that is available for public consumption is of vital importance. There was a high level of ambiguity across the responses to the questions and statements in this research in relation to the potential impact on the therapeutic relationship of discovery of personal information online by the therapist or client about the other. The significant amount of responses to this survey, as well as the high-level of engagement with the open-text questions, and the diverse variety within those responses all indicate that there exists an appetite within the psychotherapeutic community in Ireland for a discussion of this subject to begin in earnest. ItemBeyond words: The experience of silence in the therapeutic room(Dublin Business School, 2020) Dobosz, Katarzyna; Donohue, GráinneIt has been widely accepted that psychotherapeutic work consists of both verbal and non-verbal processes. This study set out to explore the experience of silence in the therapeutic room. Five practicing therapists participated in semi-structured interviews that aimed to explore the factors that affect silence in therapy. The participants were invited to reflect on their clinical work, personal development and attitudes towards the use of silence as a therapeutic intervention. The study found that the clinical practice and personal therapy were the two main factors that impact the experience of silence in the therapeutic work. The study also found that the therapists base their use of silence on the strength of the therapeutic alliance and the usefulness of it as an intervention.