Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorMaguire, Rebeccaen
dc.contributor.authorMaguire, Philen
dc.contributor.authorKeane, Mark T.en
dc.date.accessioned2011-08-16T10:19:00Z
dc.date.available2011-08-16T10:19:00Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationMaguire, R., Maguire, P. & Keane, M.T. (2011). Making sense of surprise: An investigation of the factors influencing surprise judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 37(1), 176-186.en
dc.identifier.issn0278-7393
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10788/153
dc.description.abstractSurprise is often defined in terms of disconfirmed expectations, whereby the surprisingness of an event is thought to be dependent on the degree to which it contrasts with a more likely, or expected, outcome. The authors investigated the alternative hypothesis that surprise is more accurately modelled as a manifestation of an ongoing sense-making process. In a series of experiments, participants were given a number of scenarios and rated surprise and probability for various hypothetical outcomes that either confirmed or disconfirmed an expectation. Experiment 1 demonstrated that representational specificity influences the relationship that holds between surprise and probability ratings. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the inclusion of an enabling event lowers surprise ratings for disconfirming outcomes. Experiment 3 explored the reason for this effect, revealing that enabling events lower surprise by reducing uncertainty, thus enhancing ease of integration. Experiment 4 evaluated the contrast hypothesis directly, showing that differences in contrast are not correlated with differences in surprise. These results provide converging support for the view that the level of surprise experienced for an event is related to the difficulty of integrating that event with an existing representation. Author keywords: Surprise, expectation, probability, representation, reasoning, likelihood judgements, conjunction fallacy. Author keywords: Surprise, expectation, probability, representation, reasoning, likelihood judgements, conjunction fallacy.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Psychological Associationen
dc.rightsItems in Esource are protected by copyright. Previously published items are made available in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher/copyright holder.en
dc.rights.urihttp://esource.dbs.ie/copyright
dc.source.urihttp://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/xlm/index.aspx
dc.subjectPsychologyen
dc.subjectThought and thinkingen
dc.titleMaking sense of surprise : an investigation of the factors influencing surprise judgmentsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.description.versionPostprinten
dc.rights.holderCopyright: The publisheren


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record