The immediate effect of musical tempo on stress, mood and self-efficacy
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BA (Hons) in Psychology
Dublin Business School
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This study aimed to explore the effects of musical tempo on three psychological variables; stress, mood and self-efficacy. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL) and the Generalised Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) were used as measurement. Digital recording technology was used to create two versions of a piece of music that varied in tempo but held pitch and other musical elements constant. 22 female adolescents participated in the experiment. A repeated measures design was used. Results revealed no significant effect of tempo on stress, mood or self-efficacy. The results indicate that fast tempo does not increase levels of stress, mood or self-efficacy and slow tempo does not significantly decrease levels of stress, mood or self-efficacy. Author keywords: Music, tempo, stress, self-efficacy, mood